NAP Process

NAP Process

Principles of development, monitoring of implementation and improvement of NAP

The development of NAP in Montenegro is an extremely complex and inclusive process, which implies the involvement of various parties in this part of the process, as well as its implementation. Given that climate change affects every segment of society, and that adaptation, mitigation and resilience must be built at all levels, especially among the vulnerable categories of society, this process is consequential for all citizens. As such, it is designed in a way that encourages the cooperation and contribution of all actors who make the development of the document and its implementation expedient, as well that everyone takes ownership in the implementation phase. NAP is a continuous, progressive and iterative process that follows a country-driven, gender sensitive, participatory and fully transparent approach in Montenegro.

Just resilience principles

Key measures of the vulnerability assessments



Defining and enhancing the rural development policy, designing a women-led plan for climate resilient food production, and promoting the participation of women in decision-making bodies.


Establishing financial incentives for water supply (wells, reservoirs), irrigation systems and soil management within agro-budget and conducting analysis to inform the incentives and opportunities, defining subsidies and adoption of appropriate regulations.


Improve, strengthen the enforcement of good agricultural practices and nitrate directive to ensure polluter pay, to include soil conservation, water use and biodiversity conservation practices.


Improve integration of sectoral policies at national level by the government, to support implementation of EU legislation e.g. EU Water Framework Directive.


Establishment of clusters, networks, associations of agricultural producers, to share knowledge and examples of good practice to strengthen resilience against climate change and other challenges.


Continue and expand the monitoring of marine areas (more fishermen and larger areas) to help assess and reduce vulnerabilities e.g. invasive sea species, pollution.


Raise capacities and awareness on combined production practices by preparing information materials for dissemination and training with the help of agricultural producers association. Supported by promotion of rural tourism development as a way to additionally foster combined production.


Capacity building of the agro-meteorological services, including improving the monitoring network and reporting and dissemination of information.


Promoting utilisation of soil health best practice and organic fertilisers, supported by training programs and opening organic fertiliser plants.


Implementation of models for simulating crop yields and predicting plant diseases and improving the phenological database, supported with a data collection and management system.


Promoting the knowledge base of autochthonous and adaptable varieties and breeds and to establish AKIS (Agriculture Knowledge and Information System) with training programmes to farmers. Supported by a variety testing programme for different regions to ensure farmers can grow resilient crops.


Programme control catches to reduce the numbers of new or expanding marine species in the Adriatic.


Developing and promoting Agro-forestry projects e.g. new plantations of hazelnut, wild pomegranates and other suitable species in degraded and fire prone areas, also supporting development of forests on private lands.


Implement Irrigation infrastructure for drought resilience.


Preservation of hay meadows and pastures and the promotion of sustainable land use practices e.g. maintaining soil fertility, weed control, irrigation, fertilization and other management measures that will provide optimum growing conditions.


Identifying and implementing measures to reduce climate stress on livestock.


Application of specific agro technical measures in agriculture, especially high value fruit and wine production and key crops such as potatoes e.g. wind/hail/solar safety nets, planting depth, soil conservation, promoting use of cover crops where applicable.

Comments and suggestions:



Develop an intersectoral Coastal Plan, with focus on vulnerable coastal areas. To be a case study of Montenegro capacities to manage areas highly sensitive to climate change e.g Ada Bojana, Ulcinj Salina.


Develop new methodologies and design watershed protection zone projects at all water sources integrating climate change aspects.


Improve capacities of policy makers and strengthen the research and management capacities. To assess the occurrence and risk of adverse impacts of climate change and adaptation of freshwater systems. In particular, raise capacities for the use of GIS Systems and Data Management.


Technical and organizational improvements at enterprises which manage water supply e.g. (measuring equipment, reducing illegal connections). Improving the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of water services (reducing network leakage through sound maintenance and renewal of assets, water pricing initiatives).


Implement educational campaigns for the general population on water resources, climate impacts and the need for their preservation and protection.


Develop Water Cadastre/Water Management System, for Surface and GroundWater. Including the update of existing data, improvement of data management (using GIS tools) and integration into the Water management information system. Including the development of an intersectoral water management system, which includes intersectoral coordination on data sharing and use.


Strengthen the network of measuring stations and improve the monitoring of water related data.


Upgrade and extend the existing water and utility infrastructure of the system to: 1) reduce losses 2) provide access to water to vulnerable groups and rural population, 3) improve the climate resilience of the system 4) modify extraction methods to accommodate lower flow of water levels 5) Protection of Sanitary Zones of Water Sources.


Supporting and establishing coastal and inland aquatic ecosystems (seagrass fields, coastal wetlands, reconnecting floodplains and rivers etc.) along key areas of the coast. Delivering programs and ensuring these ecosystems are embedded in plans and policies.


Improvements in waste and wastewater management.


Upgrading of flood risk mapping and interventions that prioritise Natural Water Retention measures, in line with EU Policy, and which prioritise vulnerable groups/areas.


Explore options for diversifying water supply especially in the coastal areas e.g. Desalination, Rainwater Harvesting.

Comments and suggestions:



Define, legally regulate and institutionalise the national climate adaptation planning processes for the health sector.


Develop a Long-Term Strategy on Climate Action in the Health Sector which is in line with the EU requirements and prospects for climate action until 2050.


Include and define the health sector’s role in hazard preparedness and response in the national and local level readiness plans.


Introduce evidence-based heat wave protection action plans and implement selected pilot projects in Podgorica and Danilograd.


Development and promotion of education, awareness raising and general guidelines and support of facilities for the population during heat waves and extremes.


Improve working conditions for healthcare workers and improve capacity and staff levels in rural areas to reduce regional disparity in healthcare and vulnerability to climate change.


Setting up procedures, legal and institutional mechanisms for systematic collection of data for digitalization of health sector and data management including on: healthcare statistics, new and prospective diseases, climate change related hazards and ensuring sex disaggregated data, with sufficient training of staff on digitalization and collecting data.


Strengthen the capacity of researchers working on infectious diseases by incorporating an intersectional gender approach.


Conduct field research on homelessness and health In line with the legal framework on social housing and National Housing Strategy.


Defining and implementing priority research in areas (such as vector borne diseases, impacts of heat waves).


Provide the health care system in the country with essential medical products, service delivery, technologies, and health care infrastructure for climate adaptation and resilience.


Introduce an early warning system to prepare the health sector for appropriate response during the weather extremes, supported by training programmes to enhance knowledge and skills of the workforce in the health care facilities.


Improve the preparedness of staff and the facilities and systems for climate hazards, through training, climate risk assessments and adapt the current systems and infrastructures through specific interventions which are based on best practice guidelines and building regulations.

Comments and suggestions:



Develop legislation to ensure commitments made by signing international agreements on climate action in tourism are embedded in policy.


Incentivising the growth and development of green/ sustainable tourism and promoting private sector adaptation measures. Including the development of national and local Business Development Services for sustainable tourism, such as access to information, markets, training and exchange of experience.


Gender responsive coherence, governance and operational procedures in the tourism sector.


Improve the cooperation and integration of the tourism sector with climate services.


Improve funding opportunities to facilitate research and innovation into sustainable tourism practices and how they could be implemented more widely.


Providing financial and non-financial support to tourism-based communities who are vulnerable to climate change to help diversify and adapt to climate change, with sustainable tourism offer.


Conduct a detailed sensitivity and exposure assessment of tourism assets using gender sensitive data, to also support diversification of tourism offer.


Identify key Indicators and Data to Analyse and Monitor changes in tourism, developing and implementing plans to adapt the tourist sector, and support evidence based policy and planning.


Introduce technical measures to build resilience for tourism businesses e.g. retrofit buildings, shading outdoor areas, enhance key transport infrastructure to be climate resilience.


Implement and upgrade early warning systems for hazards for tourism users and business and awareness programs to communities to inform them of procedures when early warning is given.


Developing Community-Based Tourism Programmes as a Strategy for Building Climate Resilience e.g. promoting rural, agro and eco tourism and other high value, low impact tourism products.

Comments and suggestions:



Improve communication structures between the scientific/ research community, public institutions responsible for planning, and the commercial sector and establish an intersectoral body and processes regarding climate change e.g. NCSD to arrange two round-table workshops for each key sector, each year, to discuss the nexus between policy, research, business, programming for each sector with regards to climate change


Make amendments to the applicable legalisation and develop policy and secure implementation in the field of spatial planning in order to include climate change impacts in preparation of spatial planning documentation and technical design.


Mainstream climate change adaptation into specific regulations and policies.


Educational Programmes in schools, higher education (University/LLLs), and relevant sectoral institutions, that raise levels of awareness, capacity and preparedness of climate change and its impact.


Suite of gender responsive actions to empower women in all key sectors and embed gender in cross-sectorial and coherent policies: 1. Organize series of training workshops (basic and advanced) on gender mainstreaming 2. Develop and give mandate to a cross-sectoral womens group to ensure gender sensitivity across adaptation actions across the sectors. (Engage Women NGOs, UNFCCC and Gender Focal Points, Gender network and Parliamentarian Commissions to promote leadership roles for women in climate action) 3. Prepare informative and engaging materials to increase understanding of climate & gender nexus on local level 4. Involve underrepresented groups in NAP implementation through creating community consultancy groups 5. Collect sex-disaggregated data and use it in monitoring of NAP and other action plans to ensure inequality is reducing 2. Definisati i dati mandat međusektorskoj ženskoj grupi da se osigura rodna osjetljivost u aktivnostima prilagođavanja u svim sektorima. (Angažovati ženske NVO, kontakt tačke za UNFCCC i rodnu ravnopravnost, mrežu za rodnu ravnopravnost i skupštinske odbore da promovišu vodeću ulogu žena u klimatskim akcijama). 3. Pripremiti informativne i podsticajne materijale za povećanje razumijevanja na lokalnom nivou klimatskih promjena i njihovom povezanošću sa rodnom ravnopravnošću. 4. Uključiti nedovoljno zastupljene grupe u implementaciju NPA kroz formiranje konsultativnih grupa u zajednici. 5. Prikupiti podatke razvrstane po polu i koristiti ih u praćenju NPA-a i drugih akcionih planova kako bi se obezbijedilo da se nejednakost smanjuje.


Establish an intersectoral body and process to monitor the impact of climate change.


Development and implementation of gender responsive and social inclusive local disaster and climate resilience plans, and establishment of gender and social inclusive sensitive early warning systems.


Inter-sectoral programming to integrate Agriculture, Tourism, Health and Water Sectors planning, with a shared flagship program tackling climate risks across the sectors.

Comments and suggestions:

NAP Timeline & Milestones


Project and NAP process beginning


Dialogue for Development establishment


Vulnerability assessments in priority areas


Citizen participation in formulating NAP key measures


Finalising NAP